Location - Strategically located, the State of Jammu and Kashmir constitutes
the northern most extremity of India. Situated between 32.17 degree and 36.58
degree north latitude and 37.26 degree and 80.30 degree east longitude, the
total area of the State is 2,222,236 sq. kms including 78,114 sq kms under the
illegal occupation of Pakistan and 42,685 sq kms under that of China, of which
Pakistan illegally handed over 5,130 sq kms to China. The State is bounded by
Pakistan, Afghanistan and China from the West to the East.
The State is well connected with rest of the country by air, rail and road. The
Indian Airlines and private airlines operate regular flights to Srinagar, Jammu
The National Highway 1-A connects the capital cities of Srinagar and Jammu with
rest of the country. There are daily passenger trains connecting Jammu with most
of the major cities of the country.
The State ranks 6th in area and 17th in population among the States and Union
Territories of India. The State consists of 14 districts, 59 tehsils, 119
blocks, 3 municipalities, 54 towns and notified area committee, 6,477 inhabited
villages and 281 uninhabited villages.
It has four geographical zones of
Sub-mountain and semi-mountain plain known as kandi or dry belt,
The Shivalak ranges,
The high mountain zone constituting the Kashmir Valley, Pir Panjal range and its
Doda, Poonch and Rajouri districts and part of Kathua and Udhampur districts.
The middle run of the Indus river comprising Leh and Kargil.
The State of Jammu and Kashmir is the northern most state of India comprising
three distinct Climatic regions viz. Arctic cold desert areas of Ladakh,
temperate Kashmir valley and sub-tropical region of Jammu.
There is a sharp rise of altitude from 1,000 feet to 28,250 feet above the sea
level within State's four degree of latitude.
The climate varies from tropical in Jammu plains to semi-arctic cold in Ladakh
with Kashmir and Jammu mountainous tracts having temprate climatic conditions.
The annual rainfall also varies from region to region with 92.6 mm in Leh, 650.5
mm in Srinagar and 1115.9 mm in Jammu. A large part of the State forms part of
the Himalayan Mountains. The State is geologically constituted of rocks varying
from the oldest period of the earth's history to the youngest present day river
and lake deposits.
Kashmir abounds in rich flora. The Valley, which has been described as the
'Paradise on Earth,' is full of many hues of flora and fauna. The most
magnificent of the Kashmir trees is the Chinar found throughout the valley. It
grows to giant size and girth. The tree presents itself in various enchanting
colours through the cycle of the seasons among which its autumnal look is
breath-taking. Mountain ranges in the Valley have dense deodar, pine and fir.
Walnut, willow, almond and cider also add to the rich flora of Kashmir.
The dense forests of Kashmir are a delight to the sport-lovers and adventures
for whom there are Ibex, Snow Leopard, Musk deer, wolf, Markhor, Red bear, Black
bear and Leopard. The birds include ducks, goose, partridge, chakor, pheasant,
wagtails, herons, water pigeons, warblers, and doves. In the otherwise arid
desert of Ladakh some 240 species of local and migratory birds have been
identified including black-necked crane.
The Ladakh fauna includes yak, Himalayan Ibex, Tibetan antelope, snow leopard,
wild ass, red bear and gazelle.
A major portion of J&K State consists of the western Himalayas, which besides
many lofty mountain ranges with varying heights of 3,000 to 6,000 metres and
above, also abound in rivers, lakes, passes, glaciers, plateaus and plains. The
number of streams, brooks, hill torrents and rivers is also fairly large. The
most important rivers are the Indus, Chenab, Jhelum and Ravi.
Important Facts : Jammu & Kashmir
Languages :Urdu, Kashmiri, Hindi, Dogri, Pahari, Ladakhi,
Area :2,22,236 Sq Kms.